Period 4: c. 1914 to the present
For this period, images and primary source documents are organized by each of the six Key Concepts of the Outline, illustrating:
Key Concepts reproduced in this guide are from: The College Board. "AP® European History Course and Exam Description, Including Curriculum Framework, 2017." https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-european-history-course-and-exam-description.pdf?course=ap-european-history
Advanced Placement® and AP® are trademarks registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this website.
Key Concept 4.1 — Total war and political instability in the first half of the 20th century gave way to a polarized state order during the Cold War and eventually to efforts at transnational union.
Key Concept 4.2 — The stresses of economic collapse and total war engendered internal conflicts within European states and created conflicting conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the state, as demonstrated in the ideological battle between and among democracy, communism, and fascism.
Key Concept 4.3 — During the 20th century, diverse intellectual and cultural movements questioned the existence of objective knowledge, the ability of reason to arrive at truth, and the role of religion in determining moral standards.
Key Concept 4.4 — Demographic changes, economic growth, total war, disruptions of traditional social patterns, and competing definitions of freedom and justice altered the experiences of everyday life.